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Erica silvatica (Engl.) Beentje [family ERICACEAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (2006) Author: HENK BEENTJE
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. U 1– 3; K 2– 5; T 2– 4, 6– 8
Wiry dwarf shrub 7– 40 cm high (rarely to 1 m, and twice reported to 1.8 m, in sheltered situations at lower altitudes), much branched, erect or spreading, with short densely leafy side branches 0.5– 5 cm long and long terminal flowering shoots; stem brown to red; branchlets minutely pubescent with simple hairs, intermixed with sparse dendritic hairs 0.3– 1.2 mm long, sometimes intermixed with dense glandular hairs 0.1– 1.2 mm long which may or may not have minute side-branches near their base. Leaves in whorls of 3(– 4), rarely with spirally inserted leaves, porrect or spreading (less often, in moister situations), fleshy, narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 0.9– 6 mm long, 0.3– 1.3 mm wide, sulcate beneath, acute, indument variable from sparse to dense, and variable from glandular hairs only to a mixed pubescence of simple and branched hairs, or ciliate with only marginal hairs or stalked glands, or glabrous with only a branched apical hair to 0.6 mm; petiole 0.1– 0.4 mm long, usually puberulous. Flowers on small side branches, forming apparent verticillasters 1– 15 cm long, also some solitary and axillary to distant leaves; pedicel 0.2– 1.7 mm long, puberulous or less often glabrous bract leaf-like, 0.6– 1.6 mm long; bracteoles reduced or missing. Sepals 4, green or reddish, ± equal, narrowly ovate or linear, 0.5– 2 mm long, 0.2– 0.5 mm wide, apex acute, gibbous, ciliate with simple and branched hairs or stalked glands. Corolla pink, less often whitish or violet, 4-merous, infundibuliform or shallowly cup-shaped, 0.8– 4.5 mm long, diameter at the mouth 0.6– 1.5 mm, the lobes 0.3– 0.7 mm long, rounded to subacute. Stamens dark purple, 4(– 5), with filaments 0.2– 3.5 mm long; anthers partly exserted, 0.2– 0.7 mm long, with basal tails 0.1– 0.5 mm long or absent. Ovary globose or slightly 4-lobed, puberulous; style red, 0.1– 5 mm long, stigma red, capitate, 0.1– 0.3 mm in diameter. Fruit globose, ± 1 mm, puberulous, first widening, then splitting the lower part of the corolla tube. Fig. 4. 

Mimulopsis solmsii Schweinf. [family ACANTHACEAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (2008) Author: Kaj Vollesen
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. U 2–4; K 3–7; T 6, 7
Erect or scrambling/scandent shrubby herb to 3(–5) m tall, often forming large almost impenetrable thickets and covering large areas as a “monoculture”; whole plant usually with an overpowering aromatic or foetid smell; young stems subglabrous to sericeous-puberulent with downwardly directed hairs (very rarely tomentose). Leaves with petiole of stem-leaves 2.5–10(–11.5) cm long; lamina of stem-leaves ovate to broadly cordiform, 7–21≈3–15 cm, apex acuminate to cuspidate, base subcordate to cordate with sinus to 1 cm deep, margin grossly crenate-dentate with teeth to 1(–2) cm long, sparsely sericeous-puberulent to -pubescent, usually only along midrib and main veins (rarely subglabrous). Inflorescence an open branched panicle with long spreading branches, usually also with long branches developing lateral panicles from basal nodes or upper leaf axils, (10–)15–35 cm long; flowers in lax dichasia with up to 9 flowers or solitary towards apex of panicle; bracts green, leafy, persistent, indumentum as leaves; branches and pedicels sericeous-puberulent to puberulous or densely so and with sparse to dense long capitate glands; pediels to 5(–10) mm long. Calyx puberulent to puberulous and with scattered to dense long purplish glands (rarely subsessile or absent); dorsal lobe (5–)8–21(–30 in fruit) mm long, ventral and lateral (5–)7–19(–28 in fruit) mm long; lobes linear to lanceolate, narrowly elliptic or narrowly spathulate, 0.5–2 mm wide, subacute. Corolla white to pale mauve with brown throat and one or two yellow patches on lower lip, throat with dense band of long hairs on lower lip, sparser on lateral lobes and only a few or none on dorsal lobes, 17–30(–33) mm long, cylindric part of tube 1–2(–3) mm long, throat 7–19 mm long; papillate area on lower lip of two separate elipsoid patches or fused to one; lobes all similar, broadly elliptic, 8–12(–15)≈6–10(–14) mm. Free part of filaments 2–5 mm long and fused free part ± 1 mm, glabrous or longer with scattered hairs; anthers 3–5 mm long, spur 1.5–2 mm long. Stigma ± 2 mm long, dorsal lobe absent; ovary densely hairy and glandular in apical 1/2–2/3 or all over. Capsule 15–24(–26) mm long, hairy and glandular all over or glabrous in basal half, more rarely (in Tanzania) only hairy at the very tip. Seed 4–6≈3.5–5 mm. Fig. 34, p. 224.

Podocarpus falcatus [family PODOCARPACEAE]

Flora of South Africa, (2003) Author: Dr J.P. Roux
South African National Biodiversity Institute, Compton Herbarium, Cape Town (SAM)
Reference Sources
This, the tallest member of the genus in Southern Africa, occurs in coastal and montane forests from the Swellendam district in the Cape to the northern Transvaal and southern Mozambique. It is much less common than P. latifolius and apparently is only rarely dominant. Cape.—Albany: near Grahamstown, Jacot Guillarmod 4600 (RUH). Alexandria: Langebosch, Archibald 4499. Bathurst: Kariega River, Britten 2440. East London: Marloth 2587. Engcobo: Buswayo Forest, Van der Merwe in F.D. Herb. 2268. George: Wilderness, Marloth 12703. Humans-dorp: Scott's Cave, Wells 2851. Kentani: near Kentani, Marais 739. King William's Town: near King William's Town, Comins 1027 (GRA). Knysna: Plettenberg Bay, Rogers 26861. Komga: near Komga, Flanagan 1179. Lusikisiki: Ntsubane Forest, Fraser in F.D. Herb. 2226. Mossel Bay: above Langfontein, Muir 2380 (J). Mount Ayliff: Fort Donald Forest Station, Cochrane s.n. Port Elizabeth: Van Staden's River, Theron 1658. Queenstown: Bongolo Nek, Galpin 7973. Somerset East: Boschberg, Burchell 3174 (K). Stocken-stroom: Katberg, Moss 15339 (J). Stutterheim: Kabaku Hills, Acocks 8998. Swellendam: Groot-vadersbosch, Marloth 3496. Uitenhage: Kamachs, Long 1280. Natal.—Bergville: Indumeni Forest, Killick & Marais 2142. Estcourt: Balgowan, Hilliard 179 (NU). Helpmekaar: near Pomeroy, Hilliard 1569 (NU). Ixopo: Ingwangwane, Houshold in F.D. Herb. 1956. Ingwavuma: Kosi Bay, Edwards 2551. Ladysmith: Cundycleugh, Hilliard 1031A (NU). Lions River: Karkloof, Hilliard2026 (NU). Polela: near Donnybrook, Hilliard 2464 (NU). Umfolozi: near Kwambonambi Halt, Ballenden in F.D. Herb. 2925. Utrecht: Donkerhoek, Devenish 665. Weenen: Umhlumba Mountains, West & Acocks 2745 (NH). Swaziland.—Stegi: Ubombo Mountains, Miller S/19. Transvaal.—Barberton: Ameide Plantation, Scheepers 1242; 1243. Letaba: near Ofcolaco, Scheepers 1241. Pietersburg: near Haenertsburg, Codd 9437. Pilgrims Rest: Mariepskop, Van der Schijff 5142. Soutpansberg: Houshold in Col. Herb. 5248.
Tall tree generally 10-25 m high but attaining a height of 60 m with a clean bole of more than 20 m and a girth of about 7 m. Bark greyish to purplish, more or less smooth and persistent in young trees, flaking in rectangular to roundish pieces in older speci­mens. Branchlets terete or square (on juvenile specimens generally square), distinctly ridged by decurrent leaf bases. Terminal buds about 1 mm in diameter; outer bud scales very narrowly triangular, 2-2-5 mm long and about 1 mm wide. Leaves spirally arranged, on branchlets of juvenile specimens often subopposite, spreading to suberect, glaucous to yellowish-green, twisted at the base and lamina thus orientated in a more or less verti­cal plane, narrowly linear-lanceolate to linear-elliptic, falcate to straight, acute to obtuse; adult leaves (1-) 2-4 (-4-5) cm long and (1 -2-) 2-4 (-6) mm wide; juvenile leaves up to 12 cm long and 0-6 cm wide; midrib slightly raised on lower surface, very slightly raised on upper surface; stomata present on both surfaces, arranged in 14-20 ± distinct longitudinal lines on either side of midrib. Male cones solitary or in groups of 2-4, subsessile to very shortly stalked, 5-13 mm long, elongating up to 15 mm after shedding pollen, (2-) 3 (-3 • 5) mm in diameter, brown­ish; outer sterile scales at base very broadly triangular-trullate to very broadly obovate, crenulate to denticulate, 0-5-1 mm long and 1-1-5 mm wide; terminal lobe of fertile scales very broadly triangular-trullate, 0-6-0-8 mm long and 0-8-1-4 mm wide, crenulate to lacerate; pollen sacs 0-6-0-7 mm long and about 0 • 3-0 • 4 mm in diameter. Female cones solitary on scaly or leafy branches 7-27 mm long and 1 • 5-2 • 5 mm in diameter, widest at the top just below seed; only the terminal scale fertile. Seed sub-spherical to obovoid, (1 -2-) 1 • 3-1 -7 (-1 • 8) cm long, glaucous to greyish-green, ripening to a yellowish or light reddish-brown colour; testa consisting of outer somewhat fleshy covering up to 3 mm thick which becomes very resinous inwards, and inside this a sub-spherical, somewhat laterally compressed tubercled kernel 1-1-2 (-1-4) cm long with hard woody walls (0 • 8-) 1-1 • 7 (-2) mm thick. Fig. 10 : 1.

Saintpaulia ionantha (Engl.) I.Darbysh. subsp. grotei [family GESNERIACEAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (2006) Author: IAIN DARBYSHIRE
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. T 3 restricted to the central and southern E Usambara Mts
Plants rosulate or caulescent and trailing, internodes sparsely pilose. Leaves pale green or tinged purple beneath; blade broadly ovate, suborbicular or (oblong-)elliptic, 3–10 cm long, margin coarsely to obscurely (crenate-)serrate, apex obtuse, rounded or more rarely acute to subattenuate, upper surface with appressed hairs of subequal or more often variable length, at least some short, sometimes diplotrichous, the longest hairs sometimes arced or suberect. Petioles, peduncles and pedicels with predominantly appressed or strongly ascending hairs, the longest hairs sometimes subspreading. Inflorescences 1–4(–6)-flowered. Corolla pale mauve to deep blue-violet, margin with mixed glandular and eglandular or predominantly eglandular hairs. Capsule 8–20 mm long, 1.5–3 mm diameter.

Streptocarpus mbeyensis I.Darbysh. [family GESNERIACEAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (2006) Author: IAIN DARBYSHIRE
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. T 7 not known elsewhere
Monocarpic acaulescent herb. Unifoliate; blade broadly ovate, 17–40 cm long, 12–30 cm wide, base shallowly cordate, margin crenate-dentate to crenate, apex obtuse, usually withered, surfaces pubescent, hairs most dense and longest on the principal nerves beneath; lateral nerves 14–16 pairs, parallel, spreading; petiolode less than 1 cm long, pubescent. Inflorescences 2–5, arising from the petiolode and base of the midrib, 13–25(–40)-flowered; peduncles of primary inflorescence 6.5–9.5(–13) cm long, pubescent, the hairs somewhat deflexed towards the base; pedicels 10–22 mm long, spreading-pubescent, the hairs eglandular or rarely with a few scattered glandular hairs; bracts linear to oblanceolate, 6–10 mm long, pubescent particularly beneath. Calyx lobes oblong-lanceolate, 3–4(–5.5) mm long, eglandular-pubescent. Corolla purple, the lobes darker, with or without a whitish patch under the throat outside, 33–44 mm long, rather densely eglandular-pubescent outside, glabrous within; tube cylindric, 25–33 mm long, 3.5–6 mm deep, slightly downcurved and somewhat expanded towards the open mouth, where 8.5–10 mm deep; limb bilabiate; upper lip of two rounded lobes, 4–6 mm long and wide; lower lip 7.5–14 mm long, lateral lobes 5–6(–8) mm long, 4.5–5.5 (–8.5) mm wide, median lobe 4.5–6(–9) mm long, 5–7(–8) mm wide, all rounded and held forward. Stamens arising in the upper third of the corolla tube near the mouth; filaments purple, 4–6.5 mm long, slightly thickened above the base, glabrous or with few sessile glands towards the top; anther thecae purple and white, rounded, 1–1.5 mm wide; staminodes arising from below the stamens, to 0.5 mm long. Ovary narrowly cylindric, 11–19 mm long, densely pubescent, with short, spreading, eglandular hairs; style 8–14 mm long, shortly pubescent, barely narrower than the ovary; stigma white, shallowly bilobed, 1.7–2 mm wide, shortly papillose. Capsule 55–70 mm long, 1.5–2 mm diameter, pubescent. Seeds ± 0.5 mm long, reticulate.

Aristida adscensionis L. [family GRAMINEAE]

FZ, Vol 10, Part 1, (1971) Author: E. Launert
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
warm and hot regions of the Old and New Worlds
Annual, 10-100 cm. high, caespitose. Culms erect, somewhat geniculately ascending, often branched from the base and lower nodes, glabrous, smooth, often purplish; nodes glabrous, smooth. Leaf-sheaths tightly or laxly embracing the culm, more or less keeled, striate, smooth or scaberulous. Ligule a short-ciliate rim; auricles smooth or minutely pubescent; collar glabrous. Leaf-laminae up to 15 x 0·1-0·25 cm., linear, usually flat, scabrid above, usually glabrous beneath, with margins conspicuously thickened. Panicle up to 25 x 0·1-0·25 cm., exserted, erect, narrow and dense, interrupted at the base, or lax, many-flowered with a scabrous axis and appressed, erect or somewhat spreading, scabrous or scaberulous branches. Spikelets greenish or green tinged with purple. Glumes unequal, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, more or less keeled; the inferior 4-7 mm. long, 1-nerved, minutely scaberulous or glabrous, emarginate at the apex with obtuse lobes and with an exserted mucro from the sinus, or acute, scabrous or scaberulous on the keel; the superior up to 6-8·5 mm. long, erose, 2-fid at the apex, with a mucro or short awn from the sinus, becoming scabrous on the keel towards the apex. Lemma (5·5)8-10(14) mm., usually exceeding, sometimes as long as, the glumes, tubular or slightly compressed, not narrowed upwards, pallid, usually with purple spots or tinged with purple, finely punctulate and scabrous on the keel, rarely scabrous on lateral sides towards the apex; column absent; awns unequal or subequal, more or less winged towards the base, very scabrous, the central awn being up to 20 mm. long, lateral ones 8-15 mm. long; callus 0·5-0·7 mm. long, obtuse, densely shortly barbate; articulation absent. 2n = 22.

CONYZA bonariensis (L.) Cronquist [family COMPOSITAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 315, (2002) Author: H.J. BEENTJE
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. U 1–4; K 1–7; T 1–8; pantropical weed, originally from S America, and widespread in tropical Africa; Arabia
Annual herb 0.4–1.5(–2) m high; stems erect, simple or branched, cylindrical, striate, densely pubescent to scabrid. Leaves pale grey-green, sessile, linear to narrowly lanceolate or rarely pinnatilobed, 2.5–15 cm long, 0.2–3 cm wide, base cuneate, margins entire or dentate, apex acute, scabrid-pubescent on both surfaces and particularly on the veins and margins, the upper leaves or inflorescence bracts also glandular. Capitula 4–8 mm long, grouped in terminal lax leafy panicles of 10 or more cymes of several laxly arranged capitula; stalks of individual capitula 0.2–3 cm long, scabrid-pubescent; phyllaries pale green, occasionally with red or purple apex, 2–3-seriate, ± 40, 1.5–5.6 mm long, 0.2–0.5 mm wide, with or without hyaline margins, pubescent; receptacle flat or slightly convex, not or slightly toothed. Marginal florets whitish or cream with pink to purple tips, 60 to several hundred, tube 2.5–3.3 mm long and glabrous or slightly pilose, ray erect and 0.4–0.6 mm long and 2–3-toothed at apex, style 3.4–4.2 mm long; central florets white to yellow, 4–17, tube 2.8–3.5 mm long, lobes 0.3–0.7 mm long; anthers 0.7–1.1 mm long with narrowly triangular to filiform appendage; style 3.3–4.4 mm long with short, slightly swollen, papillose branches. Achenes oblong-cylindrical, flattened or not, 1–2 mm long, 2-ribbed, pilose to pubescent; pappus of many white to pale yellow setae 2.5–5 mm long. Fig. 105 (page 507). 

DC. Subfamily CAESALPINIOIDEAE [family ]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (1967) Author: J. P. M. Brenan
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
Trees, shrubs, sometimes lianes, or rarely herbs, unarmed, or often armed in the tribe Caesalpinieae. Leaves usually pinnate, sometimes bipinnate (tribes Dimorphandreae and Caesalpinieae; this condition considered by Dormer, in Ann. Bot., n.s., 9: 141–153 (1945), to be more primitive than pinnate), rarely unifoliolate or simple. Inflorescences usually of spikes or panicles of racemes, rarely of spikes or capitate; racemes sometimes (by reduction of the main axis) represented by umbelliform fascicles. Flowers usually small to medium or large, rarely very small, usually ± irregular. Sepals usually imbricate, rarely valvate, rarely open from an early stage of bud, free or sometimes ± connate; rarely calyx entire in bud and splitting afterwards (tribe Swartzieae). Petals imbricate in bud, usually with the dorsal one within and overlapped by the adjacent lateral ones, free or sometimes connate below, usually 5, sometimes ± reduced, even to only 1 or altogether absent. Stamens usually 10 or fewer, rarely numerous, free or ± connate below. Anthers various, but lacking the apical gland often seen in Mimosoïdeae. Pollen-grains usually simple (see p. 2). Ovules anatropous. Pods various. Seeds generally without areoles (see p. 2). with an apical or subapical hilum; embryo with a generally straight radicle.

Streptocarpus goetzei Engl. [family GESNERIACEAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (2006) Author: IAIN DARBYSHIRE
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. T 7
Monocarpic acaulescent herb. Unifoliate, rarely plurifoliate in cultivation, leaf often pendant; blade ovate to oblong, size variable at flowering, 6–32 cm long, 2.5–30 cm wide, base shallowly cordate to truncate, margin crenate-dentate, sometimes obscurely so, apex usually withered, surfaces pubescent, the upper with long and sometimes short spreading hairs, the lower with long hairs along the nerves and shorter hairs inbetween; lateral nerves 12–20 pairs, parallel, spreading; petiolode usually less than 1 cm long, but to 2 cm, pubescent. Inflorescences solitary to 2–6(–10), erect, arising from the petiolode or base of the midrib, subcorymbiform, (3–)8–45-flowered; peduncles variable, (1.5–)7–26 cm long, eglandular-pubescent, ± spreading, deflexed towards the base; pedicels 10–25 mm long, spreading-pubescent, hairs of variable length, eglandular; bracts linear-lanceolate or rarely oblanceolate, 3–7(–16) mm long, pubescent. Calyx lobes (linear-)lanceolate, 2–3.5(–6) mm long, eglandular-pubescent, parallel to the corolla tube or spreading, the tips sometimes slightly recurved. Corolla pale to mid blue-violet, often paler on the palate, (20–)25–37 mm long, eglandular-pubescent outside; tube 12–25(–30) mm long, cylindric to the mid-point, where 1.5–3 mm deep and often slightly constricted, the floor then strongly downcurved to the mouth, glabrous within; mouth compressed laterally, inverted-V-shaped; limb bilabiate, spreading; upper lip of two erect, rounded lobes, 4–7 mm long, 5–9 mm wide, somewhat divaricate; lower lip 12–16 mm long, lateral lobes 4.5–9 mm long, 5.5–9.5 mm wide, median lobe 5–9 mm long, 5.5–10 mm wide, all rounded. Stamens arising from above the centre of the corolla tube; filaments 2–3 mm long, with stalked glands towards the apex; anther thecae rounded, 0.75–1.1 mm wide; staminodes minute. Ovary cylindric, 5–9 mm long, densely eglandular-pubescent; style 1.5–2(–3.5) mm long, eglandular-pubescent; stigma bilobed, 0.75–0.9 mm wide, papillose. Capsule (25–)40–55(–70) mm long, 1.5–1.7 mm diameter, pubescent. Seeds 0.5–0.8 mm long, reticulate.

Bequaertiodendron magalismontanum [family SAPOTACEAE]

Flora of South Africa, (2003) Author: Dr J.P. Roux
South African National Biodiversity Institute, Compton Herbarium, Cape Town (SAM)
Reference Sources
Found in tropical Africa, from the Congo to Tanganyika and southwards to Angola, Bechuanaland, the Transvaal, Swaziland and Natal. In Southern Africa, this species is apparently confined to quartzite and granite rocks, and serves as an indicator of such formations.
A large tree up to 17 m high when growing in forests but, in its more characteristic form, a shrub, already flowering and fruiting freely when only about 1 m high; in­novations and twigs rusty-tomentose. Leaves coriaceous, at first with a white bloom but soon glabrous and green above, rufo- or aureo-tomentose below, becoming greyish or silvery-tomentose, 4-15 cm, sometimes up to 30 cm long, 2-5 cm, sometimes up to 7 cm wide, oblanceolate-cuneate, oblong-obovate, obovate-elliptic or oblong, usually rounded or slightly narrowed, rarely cuneate at the base, emarginate, retuse or obtuse at the apex, sometimes mucronate; midrib impressed above, very prominent below; secondary nerves numerous, slender, usually inconspicuous above, often becoming slightly prominent beneath, patent, at first straight, ascending and curved towards the margin; petioles 6-12 mm, rarely up to 24 mm long; stipules long-subulate, often curved, pubescent, early deciduous. Flowers in few- to many-flowered, sometimes very dense, fascicles, the majority usually on the lower leafless parts of the branches or on older wood on sometimes rather large, raised warts, and fewer, or none, in the leaf axils; bracts 0 or very minute; pedicels densely rufo-tomentose, 2-10 mm long or, rarely, flowers sessile. Calyx 2'5-5 mm long, rusty-tomentose outside; sepals free nearly to the base, often unequal, ovate, obtuse or subacute. Corolla white or whitish, turning reddish or brown, glabrous, up to 2 mm longer than the calyx; tube cylindric-urceolate, 0-5-2 mm, usually 1-1 • 5 mm long, the lobes spreading, broadly ovate, obtuse or subacute, 2-4 • 5 mm long and about 2 mm wide. Alternipetalous staminodes 0 or sometimes 1-5, inserted just below the sinuses between the corolla-lobes, much smaller than the latter, scale-like and minute or sometimes petaloid, ovate or suborbicular, more or less irregularly serrate, dentate or incised in the upper half, up to 1-5 mm long and 0-5-1 mm wide. Stamens inserted at the base of the corolla-lobes; filaments 1-5-2 mm long; anthers 1-2 mm long, apiculate; sometimes stamens sterile, staminodial, either resembling a stamen with a filament-like basal portion and a sagittate-cordate broader top, or more irregularly shaped, very rarely lanceolate, petaloid. Ovary globose-ovoid, about 2 mm in diam., densely villous; style glabrous, about 1 • 5 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid, about 2 • 5 cm long and 1 • 8 cm in diam., dark dull-red when ripe, edible, crowned with the persistent style, 1- or sometimes 2-seeded. Seeds of 1-seeded fruits compressed-ovoid, 1-6-2 cm long, 1 -4-1 -6 cm broad and 0-8-1 • 1 cm thick; those of 2-seeded fruits with one flattened lateral side; testa light brown, shiny, thin and brittle when dry; scar linear-triangular, ventral, occupying about | of the length of the seed, 2 mm wide or more in widest place.— Fig. 6: 1.

Gomphrena celosioides Mart. [family AMARANTHACEAE]

FZ, Vol 9, Part 1, page 28, (1988) Author: C. C. Townsend
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
A native of S. America (S. Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina) which has spread with great rapidity during the present century to become a widely distributed weed in the tropics and subtropics
Perennial herb, prostrate and mat-forming to ascending or erect, c. 7–30 cm., much-branched from the base and also above; stem and branches striate, often sulcate, green to reddish, when young usually more or less densely furnished with long, white, lanate hairs, more or less glabrescent with age. Leaves narrowly oblong to oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, c. 1.5–4.5 (8) × 0.5–1.3 (1.8) cm., obtuse to subacute at the apex, mucronate, narrowed to a poorly demarcated petiole below, the pair of leaves subtending the terminal inflorescence more abruptly narrowed and sessile, oblong or lanceolate-oblong, all leaves glabrous or thinly pilose above, thinly to densely furnished with long whitish hairs on the margins and lower surface, sometimes more or less lanate on both surfaces. Inflorescences sessile above the uppermost pair of leaves, white, at first subglobose and c. 1.25 cm. in diam., finally elongate and cylindrical, c. 4–7 cm. long with the lower flowers falling, axis more or less lanate; bracts deltoid-ovate, 2.5–4 mm. long, shortly mucronate with the excurrent midrib; bracteoles strongly laterally compressed, navicular, c. 5–6 mm. long, mucronate with the excurrent midrib, furnished along about the upper one-third of the dorsal surface of the midrib with an irregularly dentate or subentire wing. Tepals c. 4.5–5 mm. long, narrowly lanceolate, 1-nerved, the outer 3 more or less flat, lanate only at the base, nerve thick and greenish below, thinner and excurrent in a short mucro at the apex; inner 2 sigmoid in lateral view at the strongly indurate base, densely lanate almost to the apex, slightly longer. Staminal tube subequalling the perianth, the 5 teeth deeply bilobed with obtuse lobes subequalling the c. 0.75 mm. long anthers which are set between them; pseudostaminodes absent. Style and stigmas together c. 1 mm. long, style very short, stigmas divergent. Capsule shortly compressed-pyriform, c. 1.75 mm. long. Seeds compressed, ovoid, c. 1.5 mm. in diam., brown, faintly reticulate, shining.

ORDER [family ASCLEPIADEÆ]

Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol 4, Part 1, page 231, (1904) Author: (By N. E. Brown.)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
A large Order of over 1800 species widely spread throughout the Tropical and Subtropical regions of the earth, a few in the Temperate regions.
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Calyx of 5 free sepals or rarely 5-lobed; segments imbricate, usually with minute processes at their base within. Corolla hypogynous, gamopetalous, regular, 5-lobed, reflexed, rotate, campanulate, infundibuliform, hypocrateriform, urceolate, or tubular; lobes imbricate, contorted, or valvate in æstivation, often recurved or connate at their tips; tube within or at its mouth sometimes furnished with variously shaped lobules, flaps, keels, or processes, which are distinct or connate and usually alternate with the corolla-lobes, forming part or the whole of the corona. Stamens 5, inserted at or near the bottom or rarely at the middle or mouth of the corolla-tube, alternating with the corolla-lobes; filaments sometimes free, but more usually connate into a tube around the ovary (forming, with the anthers and their terminal appendages, the staminal column), with the apex of the tube often united to the dilated part of the style; anthers not connate with each other, free or united to the dilated part of the style, 2-celled, dehiscing by apical, longitudinal, or transverse slits; margins of the anthers or their basal prolongations below the pollen-cells more or less horny and wing-like (the anther-wings), usually projecting outwards, the adjacent wings of each pair of anthers nearly meeting and forming between them very narrow fissures leading to the stigmatic cavities; connectives of the anthers often produced into membranous (or rarely fleshy or inflated) terminal appendages, or apiculate or unappendaged; appendages sometimes connate. Staminal-column usually furnished with variously shaped free or more or less connate appendages, which often have keels or processes on their inner face and are disposed in 1–3 series, forming the corona or part of it. Pollen-contents of each anther-cell granular or united into one or two waxy masses formed of an indefinite number of pollen-grains, and attached in pairs or in fours, sometimes directly, but more usually by means of arm-like processes (the caudicles), to each of the 5 small or minute, horny or rarely soft, turgid or bilobed bodies (the pollen-carriers), which rest, one on each of the 5 angles of the dilated part of the style, the whole forming the pollinia, the masses attached to each pollen-carrier always being derived from the cells of two different but adjacent anthers; when granular, each granule is formed of 4 pollen-grains united together, and, on the dehiscence of the anthers, the whole is loosely contained in the horny, spoon-trumpet- or trowel-shaped or bifid pollen-carriers. Pistil superior, formed of 2, 1-celled, many-ovuled (very rarely 1-ovuled) carpels, free below, but with their styles united above and dilated into a pentagonal disk, which is flat or depressed, with or without a small, central, simple or bilobed apiculus, or convex or pyramidal or prolonged into a short or long beak of variable form (termed the apical part of the style in the following descriptions), which is entire, bilobed, bifid, or dilated at the apex, or rarely there arises from the disk 2, 5 or 7 style-like processes. On the angles of the dilated part of the style are seated the pollen-carriers, and immediately beneath them behind the fissures between the anther-wings are the 5 stigmatic cavities. Ovules numerous or very rarely few or solitary, anatropous, pendulous, imbricate in several series on the projecting placenta. Fruit of two parallel or divaricate follicles, or by abortion of one follicle, variable in form, smooth, echinate or winged, dehiscing by the ventral suture and usually liberating the placenta. Seeds usually numerous, very rarely few or solitary, imbricate, flat or cochleate usually with a broad or narrow margin, crowned with a tuft of long silky hairs or rarely densely fringed all round with them, very rarely without a tuft of hairs at one end; testa rather thick or subcrustaceous; albumen thin or none; embryo straight, nearly or quite filling the seed; cotyledons flat; radicle superior. Herbs or shrubs often with a tuberous rootstock or fleshy roots. Juice milky or watery. Stems simple or branched, often twining, sometimes succulent and leafless, with terete or angular branches, which are often toothed or spiny at the angles. Leaves opposite or whorled, rarely alternate, thin or fleshy. Flowers very variable in size and form, solitary or few or many together, in umbels, umbel-like cymes, fascicles, or racemes, axillary, lateral between the bases of the leaves, or terminal.

ORDER [family GRAMINEÆ]

Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol 9, page 1, (1917) Author: (By O. STAPF.)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
About 500 genera, comprising 3000 to 3500 species in all parts of the world.
Partial inflorescences (spikelets) consisting of an axis (rhachilla) and, typically, of 3 or more alternate, distichous, more or less heteromorphous bracts, of which the two lowest (glumes) form an involucre to the spikelet and are empty, whilst the following (valves) bear in their axils subsessile flowers, subtended by a usually hyaline 2-keeled or 2-nerved dorsal bract (valvule: palea of other authors); valves differing usually in structure and size from the glumes, and forming with the valvule and the flower proper false flowers (florets), which are alike or different in structure and sex, and often more or less reduced toward the top of the spikelet. Flowers hermaphrodite, or unisexual (often with the rudiments of the other sex), consisting of 3 or, usually, of 2 (anterior) minute hyaline or fleshy, nerved or nerveless scales (lodicules), representing a perianth, and of stamens or of a pistil, or of both. Stamens usually 3, rarely 6, 4, 2, or 1, very rarely more, hypogynous; filaments very slender, nearly always free; anthers versatile, consisting of 2 parallel cells, opening longitudinally by a slit, rarely by a terminal pore. Ovary entire, 1-celled; styles 2, lateral, rarely 3 or 1, free or more or less united, sometimes very short; stigmas as many as the styles, with simple or branched stigmatic hairs, exserted from the sides or the top of the florets; ovule 1, anatropous, often more or less adnate to the posterior side of the carpel. Fruit with the thin pericarp adnate to the seed (caryopsis, grain; rarely a delicate dehiscing or rupturing utricle enclosing a free seed, still more rarely a nut or a berry), with 2 marks, an anterior indicating the position of the embryo, and a posterior (hilum), free within the valve and valvule, or adhering to the latter, rarely to both, usually forming with them a false fruit which becomes free by the disarticulation of the rhachilla. Seed erect; albumen copious, starchy; embryo usually small on the anterior face at the base of and outside the albumen; cotyledon shield-like (scutellum), closely attached by its inner side to the albumen, having the plumule and the descending radicle in front, and sometimes also a small anterior appendage opposite it (epiblast). —Herbs, annual, or perennial by means of rhizomes, rarely suffruticose, in Bambuseæ often tall shrubs or trees. Stems nearly always branched (often repeatedly and profusely) at the base, very rarely simple, thus forming fascicles or tufts of erect, ascending, prostrate or creeping, simple or ramified branches, which in the annual species are all more or less alike, having usually much shortened basal and lengthened upper internodes, terminating with an inflorescence (culms) or, in the perennial species, consist of culms and short, leafy, usually biennial shoots (innovation shoots) which grow into culms in the second season; innovation shoots either piercing the subtending sheath at the base and growing up outside it, often as runners or stolons (extravaginal), or inside the sheaths, which may or may not be thrown aside (intravaginal); culms jointed, internodes usually hollow, closed at the nodes, with or without an annular swelling above the nodes and within the sheaths (culm nodes); all the branches and the leaf-supported ramifications with a 2-keeled dorsal, usually hyaline, leaflet at the base. Leaves alternate, usually 2-ranked, rarely pseudo-opposite owing to the alternation of long and very short internodes, very often crowded in tufts or fan-shaped bunches at the base of the culms, or in some cases also of their upper branches; in the perfect form (foliage leaves or “leaves” simply) consisting of sheath, ligule and blade; sheaths with the margins free (open sheaths) or more or less connate (closed sheaths), clasping each other or the culm, finally often loosened or sometimes slipping from the culm and more or less spreading, of the same structure throughout, or with an annular succulent swelling at the base (sheath nodes), which becomes at length hardened and persistent, or partly shrinks, leaving a depressed, often dark-coloured annular mark; ligules placed transversely at the inside at the junction of the sheath and the blade, consisting of a membrane or of a fringe of hairs, rarely altogether absent; blades usually long and narrow, entire, parallel-nerved, rarely ovate, cordate or sagittate, usually passing more or less gradually into the sheath, rarely articulated with it or constricted at the base into a petiole, folded or convolute in the bud, and often folding or rolling up in the mature state as they become dry, usually much reduced or quite suppressed in the lowest leaves which, in the perennial species, act as bud-scales, sometimes also in the upper leaves. Inflorescence terminal, rarely terminal and lateral, built up of the variously arranged spikelets, panicled, racemose, capitate, simply or compoundly spicate, very rarely consisting of a single spikelet, nearly always ebracteate. Spikelets all alike or heteromorphous, differing in sex and (in co-relation with the sex) more or less also in the general structure, bisexual with all the flowers hermaphrodite, or with hermaphrodite and ♂, or ♀ and ♂ flowers in the same spikelet, or unisexual (monœcious or diœcious). Mature spikelets falling entire from the tips of the pedicels, or together with a part of the pedicel or of the rhachis, or breaking up above the glumes into as many false fruits as there are fruiting florets, rarely persistent and shedding the grains. In the first case the glumes, in the second the valves are often decurrent into a callous swelling or extension (callus) at the insertion on the pedicel or rhachilla respectively and separate together with it.

DIGITARIA abyssinica (A. Rich.) Stapf [family ]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 451, (1982) Author: W. D. CLAYTON and S.A. RENVOIZE
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. U1–4; K1–7; T1–8; P Cameroun to Arabia, southwards to South Africa
Creeping perennial with wiry rhizomes, forming mats; culms 5–60 cm. high, weak, decumbent below, the basal sheaths usually glabrous, occasionally pubescent or villous. Leaf-blades broadly linear to narrowly lanceolate, 2–12 cm. long, 3–10 mm. wide. Inflorescence of 2–25 racemes arranged on a short common axis 1–9 cm. long; racemes 2–11 cm. long, the spikelets paired on a triquetrous rhachis with or without narrow wings, sometimes the pedicels forked. Spikelets ovate-elliptic to broadly elliptic, usually plump, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, mostly tinged with purple; lower glume a membranous scale, very variable in size, 0.1–0.8 mm. long, ± ovate; upper glume 2/3 to as long as the spikelet, 3–7-nerved, glabrous, the nerves usually rather prominent; lower lemma as long as the spikelet, 7-nerved, glabrous (sometimes obscurely puberulous on the margin, very rarely distinctly hairy–see note); fruit ellipsoid, in various shades of light brown, grey and purple. Fig. 147.

Podocarpus elongatus [family PODOCARPACEAE]

Flora of South Africa, (2003) Author: Dr J.P. Roux
South African National Biodiversity Institute, Compton Herbarium, Cape Town (SAM)
Reference Sources
Confined to the winter-rainfall region of the western Cape where it grows mainly on sandy soil, often along streams and rivers. It has not been recorded from the coastal belt and appears to be absent from the Cape Peninsula. In exposed positions on mountains it is often stunted and can be almost prostrate. Cape.—Caledon: Kogelberg Reserve, Grobler in STE 24247. Ceres: Thode A2284. Clanwilliam: Cedarberg, F.D. Herb. 1243. Malmesbury: Riebeeck Kasteel Rocks, Taylor 1568 (NBG). Paarl: Paarl Mountain, Prior s.n. (K). Piquetberg: Mouton Valley Farm, Marloth 11488. Robertson: near Ashton, Marloth 11590. Stellenbosch: Swart-boskloof, Kerfoot 5048. Swellendam: Bontebok National Park, Barnard 666. Tulbagh: Witsenberg Mountains, Marloth 1707. Van Rhynsdorp: Van Rhyns Pass, Mauve 4148. Wellington: Berg River, Marloth 11079. Worcester: Baineskloof, Compton 17950 (NBG).
Rounded tree or spreading shrub usually 3-6 m high but attaining a height of 20 m; diameter of shrubs as much as 12 m. Bark thin, more or less persistent, greyish-green to dark grey. Branchlets pale yellowish-green, terete with grooves from decurrent leaf bases. Terminal buds of average branchlet about 2-3 mm in diameter; outer bud scales narrowly triangular-oblong, 4-6 mm long and about 1-5 mm wide. Leaves spirally arranged to subopposite, often crowded in upper parts of shoots and subverticillate, spreading to sub-erect, glaucous to greyish-green above, nar­rowly oblong-elliptic, tapering in the upper 1/2 to 1/3, but more abruptly near the tip, acute to subobtuse; adult leaves (1-8-) 3-6 (-7) cm long and (3-) 4-5 (-9) mm wide; juvenile leaves up to 12 cm long and 1 cm wide; midrib distinctly raised on lower surface, on upper surface slightly raised in lower half, margins flat to slightly recurved; stomata on lower surface in 15-30 ± distinct longitudinal rows on either side of midrib, on upper surface many leaves have 1 to several short rows of stomata in shallow longitudinal grooves. Male cones solitary or in groups of 2-5, generally ± ses­sile, more rarely on thin fertile shoots up to 7 mm long bearing 3-5 sessile cones in the axils of bracts, cones (1-) 1-4-1-9 (-2-5) cm long, elongating up to 3 or 4 cm after shedding pollen, (3-) 4 (-5) mm in diameter; outer sterile scales at base trullate-ovate to broadly transversely elliptic, contracted into a short tip, margin brown, scarious, denticulate, 2-3 mm long and 1 • 5-2 mm wide; terminal lobe of fertile scale triangular to ovate-triangular, denticulate to lacerate, 0 • 5-0 • 6 mm long and 0 • 6-0 • 8 mm wide; pollen sacs 0-9-1-3 mm long and 0-6-0-7 mm in diameter. Female cones solitary, on naked stalks (2-) 4-6 (-13) mm long and about 1 mm in diameter; receptacle fleshy, glaucous green at first, turn­ing scarlet, when ripe 9-15 mm long and 10-16 mm wide, with 1 or 2 fertile scales, 1 or 2 seeds maturing on each receptacle. Seed ellipsoid to ovoid, slightly apiculate, (6-) 7-10 (-12) mm long, dark glaucous green; total thickness of shell 0-3-1 mm, consisting of 3 thin layers: the outer leathery, the middle one slightly woody and the inner pergamentv

Saintpaulia ionantha (B.L.Burtt) I.Darbysh. subsp. velutina [family GESNERIACEAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (2006) Author: IAIN DARBYSHIRE
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. T 3, 6 restricted to the W Usambara, Nguru and Uluguru Mts
Plants rosulate. Leaves strongly purple or more rarely green beneath; blade broadly ovate to orbicular, 2–8.5 cm long, margin subentire, crenate or crenate-serrate, apex rounded to broadly obtuse, upper surface densely erect puberulent, with or without interspersed long erect to arced hairs. Petioles, peduncles and pedicels with spreading, ascending or suberect hairs of variable length. Inflorescences 2–6-flowered. Corolla deep blue-purple throughout or with the lobes paler towards the margins, rarely paler throughout, margin variously with predominantly glandular or predominantly eglandular hairs or with a mixture of both. Capsule 11–20 mm long, 2–3 mm diameter.

ORDER [family ASCLEPIADEÆ]

Flora Capensis, Vol 4, page 518, (1909) Author: By N. E. BROWN.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
An Order of over 1,800 species widely spread throughout the Tropical and Sub-tropical regions; a few in the Temperate regions.
Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Calyx of 5 free sepals or rarely 5-lobed, persistent; segments imbricate, usually with minute processes at their base within. Corolla hypogynous, gamopetalous, 5-lobed, vary variable in shape and size, the lobes imbricate, contorted or valvate in æstivation, often recurved or reflexed, sometimes with the sides folded backwards (replicate), in a few genera connate at the tips, rarely connate into a column at the middle then free and again connate at the tips, the sinuses between them sometimes produced into teeth, with 1–3 series of free or connate lobes, processes, keels, tubercles or flaps arising from the corolla or the staminal whorl, forming the corona, sometimes absent. Stamens 5, inserted at or near the base, rarely at the middle or mouth of the corolla-tube, alternating with the corolla-lobes; filaments sometimes free, but usually connate at their base or throughout into a staminal column, the apex often united to the dilated part of the style; anthers not connate or only by their appendages, free or united to the dilated part of style, 2-celled, opening by apical, longitudinal or transverse slits; margins of the cells or their basal prolongations more or less horny and wing-like (anther-wings), usually projecting outwards; adjacent wings of each pair of anthers nearly meeting, leaving very narrow fissures leading to the stigmatic cavities; connectives often produced into membranous or rarely fleshy or inflated terminal appendages or apiculate or unappendaged; appendages free or connate. Pollen granular or united into 1 or 2 waxy masses, attached in pairs or in fours, sometimes directly, but more usually by means of arm-like processes (caudicles) to each of the 5 small or minute, horny or rarely soft bodies (pollen-carriers) at each angle of the dilated part of the style; when granular, each granule consists of 4 pollen-grains or of 3–5 grains in a row, and then held in horny pollen-carriers with a spoon-, trumpet- or trowel-shaped entire or bifid blade, tapering downwards into a short or long stalk attached to a soft adhesive gland. Pistil superior, formed of 2 one-celled carpels, free below, but their styles united above and dilated at the middle or apex into a pentagonal disk; style-apex flat or depressed in the centre, with or without a central simple or bilobed apiculus, or convex, pyramidal or prolonged into a long beak of variable form, which is entire, bifid or dilated, rarely there arises from the disk 2, 5 or 7 style-like processes; stigmatic cavities below the angles of the style-apex, behind the fissures between the anther-wings. Ovules numerous or very rarely few or solitary, anatropous, pendulous, imbricate in several series on the projecting placenta. Fruit of 2 follicles or by abortion of 1, variable in form, smooth, echinate or winged, opening by the ventral suture and usually liberating the placenta. Seeds usually numerous, very rarely few or solitary, imbricate, flat or cochleate, usually with a broad or narrow margin, crowned with a tuft of long silky hairs at one end, or rarely densely fringed all round, very rarely without a tuft of hairs; testa rather thick, subcrustaceous or sometimes thin; albumen usually thin or none, rarely thick; embryo straight or rarely slightly curved, usually nearly or quite filling the seed; cotyledons flat; radicle superior. Erect, prostrate, twining or scrambling herbs or shrubs, with milky or watery juice; stems simple or branched, sometimes leafless or with very minute leaves, then often succulent, with terete or angular branches, often toothed or spiny at the angles; leaves opposite or whorled, rarely alternate, thin, coriaceous or fleshy; flowers very variable in size and form, solitary or few or many together in umbels, umbel-like cymes, fascicles or racemes, axillary, more or less lateral between the bases of the leaves, or terminal.

Lilium [family LILIACEAE]

Flora of North America, Vol 26,
Flora of North America (FNA)
Reference Sources
Herbs, perennial, bulbose. Bulbs whitish, rarely yellowish or purplish, often stained brown, erect and ovoid (hereafter “ovoid”), irregular and chunky (“chunky”), slanted in ground and ± elongate (“subrhizomatous”), or horizontally elongate (“rhizomatous”), sometimes branching if rhizomatous, rarely if not, 1.4–11.7 × 1.3–19 cm, 0.1–3 times taller than long, annual growth usually obscure; scales (modified leaves) numerous, fleshy and starchy, usually densely covering rhizomes, rarely bearing leaf blades known as basal leaves or their abscission scars, often notched or segmented, longest 0.8–11.9 cm; roots on each bulb either contractile and concentrically wrinkled and thick (to 5 mm), or for nutrition and thinner, fibrous. Stems erect, green, sometimes purple, rarely glaucous, to 3.1 m, ± glabrous, often with adventitious stem roots above bulb. Buds usually rounded in cross section, sometimes ± triangular. Leaves numerous, usually ± evenly distributed along stem, rarely concentrated proximally, scattered or more commonly in 1–12(–24) whorls with some scattered at stem base and apex, 3–20(–40) leaves per whorl, sessile, drooping at tips to ascending, 1.7–29 × 0.2–5.6 cm, 1.6–34 times longer than wide; blade green and somewhat lighter abaxially, rarely paler, linear, lanceolate, elliptic, or obovate, sometimes oblanceolate, especially in proximal leaves, often somewhat lanceolate in distal leaves, margins entire, undulate or not, usually glabrous and smooth or occasionally slightly papillose, sometimes roughened abaxially by ± deltoid epidermal spicules, apex acute to obtuse or rarely acuminate; principal veins usually 3, usually glabrous and smooth abaxially, sometimes with ± deltoid epidermal spicules, rarely impressed adaxially. Inflorescences maturing acropetally, terminal, racemose or umbellate (in small plants), usually open, bracteate, 1–25(–45)-flowered; bracts usually 1–2 per flower, often with one lanceolate and very wide and the other linear or filiferous. Flowers pendent, nodding, horizontal, ascending, or erect, radially or slightly bilaterally symmetric, fragrant or not; perianth campanulate, funnelform, or with sepals and petals strongly reflexed in form of a “Turk’s-cap”; sepals and petals usually differentiated, sometimes indistinctly so, recurved or reflexed, distinct, orange, red, yellow, pink, or white, usually with adaxial magenta or maroon spots concentrated in proximal 1/2–2/3, ± lanceolate and narrowed or rarely clawed, glabrous (pubescent strip at base in L. lancifolium), nectaries present on each but often more developed on sepals, basal, green, usually hidden but occasionally exposed and forming visible green star at adaxial base of perianth; sepals 3, occasionally ridged abaxially, 3.1–12 × 0.6–2.6 cm, apex usually acute; petals 3, ridged abaxially, with 2 adaxial longitudinal median rounded ridges, 3–11.2 × 0.6–3.4 cm, apex usually acute, often more widely than sepal apex; stamens 6, opposite sepals and petals, distinct, included to strongly exserted; filaments ± parallel to style or spreading, diverging to 31° from flower axis, color variable but usually pale green or nearly translucent; anthers versatile, color variable, usually purplish, becoming darker, oblong, 0.3–2.6 cm; pollen cream, yellow, peach, tan, orange, rust, or brown, usually becoming lighter; pistil compound, 3-lobed, 3-locular, oblong, 2.1–10.5 cm; ovary superior, 0.8–3.5 cm, axile placentas 6, ovules as many as seeds, a few developing without embryos; style initially parallel to flower axis, usually elongating and curving toward periphery, usually pale green, round in cross section; stigma 3-lobed, hollow in older flowers; pedicel not articulate, 0.8–32 cm. Fruits erect, green maturing to brown, capsular, 3-valved, not strongly winged, ± oblong-obovate, 1.5–7.7 × 0.8–3.3 cm, 1.1–4.8 times longer than wide, base constricted, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 67–330, light brown with darker ovate embryo in center, 6-ranked, flattened into 60° wedge, verrucose. x = 12.

Senecio [family COMPOSITAE]

Flora of North America, Vol 20,
Flora of North America (FNA)
Reference Sources
Annuals, biennials, perennials, subshrubs, or shrubs, 5–100(–250+) cm (perennating bases taprooted, fibrous-rooted, branched caudices, or suberect to creeping rhizomes; roots often fleshy, seldom branched; herbage glabrous or hairy, often glabrescent at flowering). Stems single or clustered, erect to lax (simple or branched). Leaves basal and/or cauline; alternate; petiolate or sessile (bases sometimes clasping); blades subpalmately to pinnately nerved, mostly ovate or deltate to oblanceolate, lanceolate, linear, or filiform (and most intermediate shapes), rarely suborbiculate (sometimes palmately or pinnately lobed to 2–3-pinnatifid), ultimate margins entire or denticulate to serrate or toothed (sometimes with relatively many callous denticles or teeth), faces glabrous or hairy (usually arachnose to tomentose, often glabrescent). Heads (sometimes nodding) usually radiate or discoid (rarely quasi-disciform), usually in corymbiform to cymiform, sometimes paniculiform or racemiform, arrays (sometimes from axils of distal leaves), sometimes borne singly. Calyculi usually of 1–8+ bractlets (bractlets often intergrading with distal peduncular bracts, mostly 1/5–1/2+ times phyllaries), sometimes 0. Involucres mostly cylindric or turbinate to campanulate, 5–15(–40) mm diam. Phyllaries persistent, usually ± 5, 8, 13, or 21 [34] in (1–)2 series, distinct (margins interlocking), erect (often reflexed in fruit), mostly oblong to lanceolate or linear, subequal or equal, margins usually scarious. Receptacles flat to convex, foveolate, epaleate. Ray florets usually ± 5, 8, 13, or 21 [34], pistillate, fertile, sometimes 0; corollas usually yellow, sometimes ochroleucous or white, rarely reddish to purplish (laminae sometimes barely surpassing phyllaries; peripheral pistillate florets usually 0, sometimes 1–8+; corollas usually yellow, sometimes ochroleucous or white). Disc florets (5–)13–80+, bisexual, fertile; corollas usually yellow, rarely ochroleucous, white, reddish, or purplish, tubes shorter than to equaling campanulate throats, lobes 5, erect to recurved, usually ± deltate; style branches stigmatic in 2 lines, apices usually truncate-penicillate. Cypselae cylindric or prismatic, usually 5-ribbed or -angled, glabrous or hairy (especially on ribs or angles, hairs sometimes myxogenic); pappi usually persistent (fragile), sometimes readily falling, of 30–80+, white to stramineous, barbellulate to smooth bristles. x = 10.

Coryphantha [family CACTACEAE]

Flora of North America, Vol 4,
Flora of North America (FNA)
Reference Sources
Plants erect, spheric and unbranched or, if branched, then ultimately forming low clumps or small mats. Roots diffuse, succulent taproots (sometimes tuberlike or massive), or in some species ultimately adventitious from bases of branches. Stems unsegmented, hemispheric, spheric, ovoid, or cylindric, sometimes flat-topped, tuberculate, 1–20(–50) × 1–15 cm after sexual maturity; tubercles conic to hemispheric or cylindric, never coalescing into ribs, protruding conspicuously, grooved on their adaxial (upper) sides in sexually mature plants, i.e., areoles of sexually mature plants each consisting of fertile meristem (often woolly) in tubercle axil and spine cluster on tubercle apex, the two connected by a linear isthmus (areolar extension, often short woolly) recessed into an areolar groove on adaxial side of tubercle (groove extends only 1/2–3/4 distance from spine cluster to tubercle axil in C. macromeris); areolar glands present or absent; cortex and pith usually mucilaginous or with mucilage confined to flowers and fruits. Spines 3–95 per areole, color various, needlelike (peglike in C. minima), usually differentiated into radial and central spines; radial spines straight or curved; central spines, when present, straight or curved (hooked in C. robustispina), terete, 4–55 mm. Flowers diurnal (sometimes ± vespertine in C. tuberculosa), borne at or near stem apex (lateral in C. recurvata), on new growth of current year and/or last-produced areoles of preceding year (fruiting zone in some species becoming displaced outward and downward by apical vegetative growth after flowering), campanulate or funnelform to nearly salverform with recurved tepals, 1–6.5 × 0.6–10 cm; outer tepals entire or fringed; inner tepals variously colored, never pure red or blue, 4.5–40 × 1–15 mm, often glossy, margins entire, toothed, fringed, or erose; scales on ovary none or few, narrow or rudimentary, entire or erose, axils naked, spineless; stigma lobes 4–13, white to yellow or orange-yellow (rarely pinkish), 0.5–8 mm. Fruits indehiscent, green or red, spheric, ellipsoid, ovoid to narrowly fusiform, or obovoid, 1.5–50 × 1.5–20 mm, usually juicy, sometimes slimy or fleshy (dry in C. minima), scales usually absent (or few), spines absent; pulp colorless to white, greenish, or pinkish; floral remnant persistent or deciduous. Seeds usually reddish brown or black, sometimes yellowish, reniform, comma-shaped, obovoid, or spheric, 0.8–3.5 mm in greatest diam., shiny or glossy; testa smooth, raised-reticulate, or pitted; strophiole (unsclerified tissue in/around hilum) small or large, flat or slightly protruding, never surrounding micropyle, replaced by a narrow raphe in some species (e.g., C. ramillosa); sclerified collar between hilum and micropyle short, solid or grooved, nearly open in some species. x = 11.

Purpus, Carl Albert (1851-1941)

None
Natural History Museum (BM)
Reference Sources
None

Polytrichaceae [family ]

Flora of North America, Vol 27,
Flora of North America (FNA)
Reference Sources
Plants small, medium to large, densely to loosely caespitose or scattered among other bryophytes, rarely with individual plants scattered on a persistent protonema. Stems erect, acrocarpous, from a ± developed underground rhizome, simple or rarely branched, bracteate proximally, grading gradually or abruptly to mature leaves. Leaves various, with a chartaceous, sheathing base and a divergent, firm-textured blade (polytrichoid), or the whole leaf membranous and sheath not or weakly differentiated, the blade rarely transversely undulate, crisped and contorted when dry; adaxial surface of blade with numerous closely packed longitudinal photosynthetic lamellae across most of the blade, the marginal lamina narrow, or the lamellae restricted to the costa, flanked by a broad, 1 (rarely 2)-stratose lamina, rarely with abaxial lamellae; margins 1(–3)-stratose, entire, denticulate, serrate, or toothed (in Atrichum bordered by linear, thick-walled cells); costa narrow in basal portion, in the blade abruptly broadened and diffuse, smooth or toothed adaxially, rarely with abaxial lamellae, in cross section with a prominent arc of large diameter guide cells and an abaxial stereid band; lamellae entire, finely serrulate, crenulate, or coarsely serrate, the free margin smooth or cuticular-papillose, the marginal cells in cross-section undifferentiated or sharply distinct in size and/or shape from those beneath; transition in areolation from sheath to blade gradual or abrupt, with “hinge-tissue” at the shoulders (except Atrichum and Psilopilum); cells of back of costa (or cells of the membranous lamina) typically in longitudinal rows, ± isodiametric to transversely elongate-hexagonal. Vegetative reproduction none, or by proliferation of an underground rhizome. Sexual condition dioicous or rarely monoicous; male inflorescence indeterminate, innovating from the center and continuing the growth of the stem, often several successive perigonia per shoot; female inflorescence terminal, perichaetial leaves long-sheathing or not much differentiated. Seta solitary or rarely several from the same perichaetium. Capsule obtusely to sharply (2–)4(–6)-angled, with indistinct longitudinal angles or ridges, or terete; hypophysis tapering and indistinct or delimited by a constriction at base of capsule; exothecium smooth, mammillose, or scabrous; stomata present (absent in Atrichum and Pogonatum); peristome pale or strongly pigmented, nematodontous, with a single series of [16–]32–64 rigid, unjointed teeth composed of elongate, fiber-like, sinuate cells, the teeth simple or compound, attached by their tips to the epiphragm (tympanum) covering the capsule mouth. Calyptra cucullate, with a matted felt of hairs arising from its tip and covering all or part of the capsule, or the calyptra sparsely ciliate to smooth. Spores minute and echinulate, or larger and finely papillose.

GREWIA flavescens Juss. [family TILIACEAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, page 1, (2001) Author: C. WHITEHOUSE, M. CHEEK, S. ANDREWS & B. VERDCOURT
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. U 1; K 1, 2; T 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 tropical Africa south to Botswana, Namibia and NE South Africa, also Saudi Arabia and India
Shrub or scandent tree to 7.5 m tall; young stems densely roughly to softly pubescent, often flattened, older branches 3–4-angled, grey-brown. Leaves broadlyelliptic, ovate, oblong, obovate or almost circular, 4.5–14.5 cm long, 2–11 cm wide, obtuse, acute or acuminate at the apex, rounded, truncate or slightly cordate at the base, usually scabrid above, roughly to softly densely pubescent beneath, sometimes ± tomentose; petiole 3–12 mm long; stipules 9–10 mm long. Inflorescence a 1–3-flowered cyme, 1–4 congested in a leaf-axil; peduncle 3–9 mm long; pedicels 5–14 mm long. Flowers yellow; sepals 7–22 mm long, green to reddish brown on the outside, yellow to orange inside; petals 8–15 mm long, yellow. Androgynophore 1–2 mm long, glabrous; stamens 8–18 mm long, yellow; ovary ± 3 mm long; style 4–17 mm long, yellow, hairy. Fruit shallowly or obscurely 1–3(–4)-lobed, 8–10 mm long, 7–14 mm wide, sparsely stellate-pubescent to glabrescent and shiny, green becoming orange to reddish brown, later brownish black. Fig. 3/24 (leaf, p. 9).

Cineraria deltoidea Sond. [family COMPOSITAE]

Flora of Tropical East Africa, Part Part 3, page 547, (2005) Author: H. Beentje, C. Jeffrey & D.J.N. Hind
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
DISTR. U 2, 3; K 1, 3–6; T 2, 4, 6, 7
Perennial herb, erect or more usually scandent or trailing, 15–300 cm high or long; stems branched, often purplish, floccose-tomentose, thinly arachnoid or sparsely pubescent, glabrescent. Leaves petiolate, except the uppermost, very broadly ovate to narrowly triangular in outline, 1–7 cm long, 1–9.3 cm wide, base subtruncate to deeply cordate or emarginate, obscurely to moderately deeply 5–11-lobed, dentate on the distal margins of the lobes, apex acute to rounded and apiculate or sometimes attenuate, green and glabrescent except for main veins or glabrous above, floccose-tomentose to sparsely pubescent beneath, especially on veins, often glabrescent; petiole often narrowly winged, rarely with 1–4 small oblong lateral lobes, expanded and usually auriculate at the base, 0.8–6.5 cm long; uppermost stem leaves sessile, smaller. Capitula rarely solitary, normally in erect to pendulous, often copious, terminal cymes. Involucre cylindrical, 4–7.5 mm high; bracts of calyculus 2–8, lanceolate, 1–3 mm long; phyllaries 8–14, 3.5–7 mm long, pale green with brownish or reddish-brown tips, glabrous or sometimes thinly arachnoid. Ray florets 4–14, rays golden yellow to lemon yellow, 4–14 mm long, 1.5–3.5 mm wide, tube 2–3 mm long, sparsely hairy or rarely glabrous; disc florets yellow, corolla 3–6.2 mm long, tube usually glabrous, lobes 0.5–1 mm long. Achenes dark-coloured, 2–3.5 mm long, the outer compressed and slightly winged, the inner 3-angled, shortly ciliate on the margins and sometimes also on the faces, or completely glabrous; pappus 3–6 mm long. Fig. 118 (page 564).

Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Müll.-Arg. [family EUPHORBIACEAE]

Burkill, H.M. 1985. The useful plants of west tropical Africa, Vol 2
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K)
Reference Sources
None

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